What is the D.I.E. Model?
  • When a conversation or communication does not go as we anticipated, we naturally try to understand why by looking at that situation through our own lens. We apply our past personal experiences and knowledge to make sense of what happened. The problem lies in just that—the assumptions we make based on our own cultural experiences and knowledge.
  • The D.I.E. Model is helpful for identifying why we respond to a situation in this way and guides us toward a more thorough understanding of a miscommunication from another person’s perspective. **See below for an explanation of how the D.I.E. Model has been updated to D.A.E. to remove the negative connotations.
What are the Steps in the D.I.E. Model?

There are three steps:

  1. Describe what happened. We are encouraged to focus on the observable facts of the incident.
  2. Interpret what happened. This is our interpretation and what we think about the event. It is vital to notice what emotions are present and how we might be personalizing the incident.
  3. Evaluate what happened. We are encouraged to consider how we feel (whether positive or negative) about the incident.
Describe – Interpret – Evaluate
Description: What I see (only observed facts)
Interpretation: What I think about what I see
Evaluation: How I feel about what I see (positive or negative)
Where Can I Find More About the D.I.E. Model and the Updated D.A.E Version?
  1. Nam, K.-A., & Condon, J. (2010). The DIE is cast: The continuing evolution of intercultural communication’s favorite classroom exercise. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34(1), 81–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2009.09.001
  2. Alexandru Caldararu, Clements, J., Gayle, R., Hamer, C., & Maria MacMinn Varvos. (2021, December 21). What is Culture and Intercultural Competence? Openeducationalberta.ca; NorQuest College. https://openeducationalberta.ca/settlement/chapter/introduction-4/ CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0
How Can I Teach Students/Learners to Use the D.I.E. Model?

There is an excellent scenario and example available at this resource:

…See you next week for a new tip!


Attribution Statement: This resource was adapted from

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